Conservation of cultural heritage - Methods of measurement of moisture content, or water content, in materials constituting immovable cultural heritage
This European Standard is aimed to inform and assist users in the choice and use of the most appropriate method to obtain reliable measurements of the moisture content, or water content, in wood and masonry (including brickwork, stonework, concrete, gypsum, mortars, etc.) in the specific case of the built cultural heritage.
It provides a basic framework to take and interpret this kind of measurements on the above cultural heritage materials that have undergone weathering, pest attack, salt migration or other transformations over time.
It specifies four absolute methods (i.e. gravimetric, Karl Fischer titration, azeotropic distillation and calcium carbide); explains their characteristics, pros and cons, and gives specifications for the transformation of readings into the same unit to make measurements taken with different methods comparable.
It specifies the three principal relative methods (i.e. electrical resistance, capacitance, and relative humidity in equilibrium with the material), pointing out their characteristics and uncertainties when used in the field of cultural heritage.
In addition, it provides an informative overview of ten other relative methods, their characteristics, pros and cons.
It gives specifications for the calibration of the various methods. It also compares the above methods in relation to their accuracy, sampling requirement, sample size, laboratory or field use, and other problems encountered in the field of cultural heritage to prevent instrument misuse, reduce uncertainties and avoid reading misinterpretation.