Water quality - Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides - Method by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISO 10703:2007)
This International Standard specifies a method for the simultaneous determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma rays with energies 40 keV
NOTE The determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides emitting gamma rays with energy below 40 keV and above 2 MeV is also possible within the scope of this International Standard, provided both the calibration of the measuring system and the shielding are adapted to this purpose.
This International Standard includes the procedures for energy calibration, determination of the energy dependent sensitivity of the measuring system, the analysis of the spectra and the determination of the activity concentration of the various radionuclides in the sample studied. It is only applicable to homogeneous samples. Samples with activities typically between 1 Bq and 104 Bq can be measured as such, i.e. without dilution or concentration of the sample or special (electronic) devices.
Depending on different factors, such as the energy of the gamma rays and the emission probability per nuclear disintegration, the size and geometry of the sample and the detector, the shielding, the counting time and other experimental parameters, the sample should be concentrated by evaporation when activities below about 1 Bq have to be measured. Also, when the activity is considerably higher than 104 Bq, the sample should be either diluted or an aliquot of the sample should be taken or the source to detector distance should be increased, or a correction for pile-up effects should be applied.