1.1 This European Standard establishes general principles for the execution of displacement piles, that means piles which are installed in the ground without excavation or removal of material from the ground except for limiting heave and/or limiting vibration as well as removal of obstructions or to assist penetration. Piles are driven into the ground using impact, vibration, pressing, screwing or a combination of these methods. 1.2 The material of displacement piles covered by this European Standard can be: - steel; - cast iron; - concrete, mortar; - timber; - grout; - combination of above. 1.3 This European Standard covers prefabricated, cast in situ, or a combination of these methods to form displacement piles of regular shape. Examples are given in Figure A.2 and Figure A.3. 1.4 Displacement piles may be installed in soils enhanced by ground improvement techniques. The ground improvement can be executed before, at the same time or after installation of the piles. 1.5 Other than practical considerations there are for the purpose of this European Standard no limitations regarding cross section dimensions, shaft or base enlargements, length or rake. 1.6 The provisions of this European Standard apply to: - single piles; - pile groups; - concrete sheet piles. 1.7 Columns constructed by ground improvement techniques (such as mixed in situ columns, jet grouting, compaction grouting, vibro flotation, stone columns) are not covered by this European Standard. Bored piles are covered in EN 1536. Steel and timber sheet pile walls are covered in EN 12063. Micropiles are covered in EN 14199.