This European Standard is applicable to the planning, execution, testing and monitoring of ground treatment by deep vibration achieved by depth vibrators and compaction probes.
The following types of treatment are covered by this European Standard:
-- deep vibratory compaction to densify the existing ground;
-- vibrated stone columns to form a stiffened composite ground structure by the insertion of granular material which itself shall be densified. Generally, stone columns have a diameter greater than 0,6 m and lower than 1,2 m.
The following treatment methods are covered by this European Standard:
-- methods in which depth vibrators, containing oscillating weights which cause horizontal vibrations, are inserted into the ground;
-- methods in which compaction probes are inserted into the ground using a vibrator which remains at the ground surface and which in most cases oscillates in a vertical mode.
Treatment methods are outlined in Annexes A and B.
The following treatment methods, among others, are not included in this European Standard:
-- methods in which sand or stone columns are installed by means of impact or top vibratory driven casing;
-- methods in which very stiff columns are formed either by the addition of cement to granular material or by the use of concrete or any other binder;
-- dynamic compaction and other methods in which some form of treatment is applied to the ground surface;
-- explosive compaction.