ISO 24534-4:2010 provides requirements for electronic registration identification (ERI) that are based on an identifier assigned to a vehicle (e.g. for recognition by national authorities) suitable to be used for: electronic identification of local and foreign vehicles by national authorities; vehicle manufacturing, in-life maintenance and end-of-life identification (vehicle life cycle management); adaptation of vehicle data (e.g. for international resales); safety-related purposes; crime reduction; commercial services. It adheres to privacy and data protection regulations. ISO 24534-4:2010 specifies the interfaces for a secure exchange of data between an ERT and an ERI reader or ERI writer in or outside the vehicle using asymmetric encryption techniques. ISO 24534-4:2010 includes: the application layer interface between an ERT and an onboard ERI reader or writer; the application layer interface between the onboard ERI equipment and external ERI readers and writers; security issues related to the communication with the ERT.