Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions
(1) EN 1991-1-4 gives guidance on the determination of natural wind actions for the structural design of building and civil engineering works for each of the loaded areas under consideration. This includes the whole structure or parts of the structure or elements attached to the structure, e.g. components, cladding units and their fixings, safety and noise barriers.
(2) This Part is applicable to:
-- Buildings and civil engineering works with heights up to 200 m. See also (11).
-- Bridges having no span greater than 200 m, provided that they satisfy the criteria for dynamic response, see (11) and 8.2.
(3) This part is intended to predict characteristic wind actions on land-based structures, their components and appendages.
(4) Certain aspects necessary to determine wind actions on a structure are dependent on the location and on the availability and quality of meteorological data, the type of terrain, etc. These need to be provided in the National Annex and Annex A, through National choice by notes in the text as indicated. Default values and methods are given in the main text, where the Natioan Annex does not provide information.
(5) Annex A gives illustrations of the terrain categories and provides rules for the effects of orography including displacement height, roughness change, influence of landscape and influence of neighbouring structures.