This document describes the main ergonomic risk factors influencing the safety of machinery and gives a framework for incorporating them into the design of machines by the integration of important ergonomic principles relating to: — avoiding stressful postures and movements during use of the machine; — designing machines, and more especially hand-held and mobile machines, which can be operated easily; — avoiding as far as possible noise, vibration, thermal effects; NOTE 1 The health effects of noise, vibration and adverse thermal conditions are well-known and are not addressed here. However environmental factors can interact with machine design and risks arising from such influences are addressed in this document. — avoiding linking the operator’s working rhythm to an automatic succession of cycles; — providing local lighting on or in the machine;NOTE 2 Lighting of the machine or of the surrounding workplace by the machine can have a significant impact on the safety of machine operation and this risk is addressed by this document. — selecting, locating and identifying manual controls (actuators) so that they are clearly visible and identifiable and appropriately marked where necessary; — selecting, designing and locating indicators, dials and visual display units. The approach is based on ISO 12100 with its iterative process to identify significant hazards and reduce risks. Relevant steps of this iterative process have been adapted to include ergonomic principles, and practical guidance is given to apply standards dealing with ergonomics which are relevant for machinery design. This document is intended for use by standards writers and designers of machinery. It can be used when no relevant C-type standards are available.