This International Standard specifies anatomical and basicentric coordinate systems for biodynamical
measurements, for reference purposes in cognate standards development, and for precisely describing
human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock. The segmental anatomical coordinate systems
defined in this International Standard are for the head, root of the neck (driving-point for the head and
neck system), pelvis, and hand. General principles are stated for the establishment of corresponding
anatomical coordinate systems for other skeletal body segments. The biodynamic coordinate systems
defined in this International Standard can serve as frames of reference for the description and
measurement of both translational and rotational vibration and shock motion affecting humans.
NOTES 1 Although defined for human subjects, these anatomical coordinate systems are adaptable, using a
knowledge of comparative anatomy, to non-human primates or to other animal species whose skeletal anatomy
is recognizably comparable, radiographically, with the relevant anatomy of humans.
2 When the need arises for other segmental anatomical coordinate systems (e.g. for the arm, wrist, leg or foot),
these should be defined according to corresponding principles of anatomy and of standardization, and may be
proposed for inclusion in subsequent revisions of this International Standard.
3 This International Standard recognizes no difference between male and female skeletal anatomy bearing upon
the definition and use of biodynamic coordinate systems. Moreover, the same principles apply when defining
anatomical coordinate systems for children, and for non-human mammalian species used in ethical biodynamics
research, development, testing and evaluation.