Road vehicles - Ergonomic aspects of in-vehicle presentation for transport information and control systems - Warning systems
This Technical Report provides a literature survey about the human-machine interface of warning systems in vehicles, including studies of ISO/TC 22/SC 13/WG 8 and ISO/TC 204/WG 14. It covers the experimental experiences about the efficiency and acceptance of different modalities and combinations of warnings, and the design of the sensorial, code and organizational parameters of visual, auditory and tactile warnings (as well as concluding recommendations). The survey should initialize standardizing activities of ISO working
groups, e.g. ISO/TC 22/SC 13/WG 8.
This literature survey comprises the human-machine interface issues of warning systems in automobiles. The discussion of warning signals in general is dealt with in Clause 2 and concerns the definition of warning signals, their failure and urgency aspects. Alarm theories are briefly dealt with here. The basic psychological
and physiological aspects of warnings in vehicles are the subject of Clause 3. Some issues of human
behaviour, which are relevant to handling warnings, are described.
Due to their importance, the sensorial modalities are introduced separately in Clause 4. Auditory and tactile presentations are becoming more and more important, which is reflected in the structure of the next three Clauses 5, 6 and 7. The specific psychological and physiological bases, benefits and types of displays for each sensory modality are presented in these clauses. Clause 5 is dedicated to visual warning displays with a few examples of the sensorial-related parameters. Symbols, icons and text are discussed extensively. Other
coding and organizational features are handled as far as warning signals are affected (colour, blinking,