This International Standard determines the air interface using infra-red systems at 820 nm to 1 010 nm. It provides protocols and parameters for medium-range, medium- to high-speed wireless communications in the ITS sector using infra-red systems. Such links are required for quasi-continuous, prolonged or short communications ? between vehicles and the roadside, ? between vehicles, and ? between mobile equipment and fixed infrastructure points, over medium and long ranges. Vehicles may be moving or stationary. Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable extant International Standards, adopted by selection. Required regional variations are provided. Due account is given to, and use made of, any relevant parts of appropriate communications systems, such as global positioning systems (GPS), digital audio broadcasting (DAB), digital video broadcasting (DVB), radio local area networks (RLANs), digital data broadcasting (DDB), TETRA, FM subcarrier, mobile broadband systems (MBS, W-ATM), internet protocols, and dedicated short range communication (DSRC).